Summer has ended but wildfires are still raging across California. Hundred of thousands of acres have been lost each of the last several years to wildfires, and there appears to be no end in sight. Although Smokey the Bear says “Only you can prevent forest fires”, it appears that many wildfires are deliberately caused by humans. An arrest was made yesterday of a man who set a fire that has consumed 111 square miles of forest so far.
What lessons are these fires teaching us? A simple one: You have the responsibility to not only defend your retreat from hordes of marauding zombies, but also natural disasters such as forest fires. Luckily, this involves 2 things that the preparedness community has in abundance: 1) the propensity to plan and 2) common sense.
An important factor in protecting your home is what we call “vegetation management”. You’ll want to direct fires AWAY from your house. There are several ways to accomplish this. You’ll want to clean up dead wood lying on the ground close to your buildings and off the roofs. Keep woodpiles and other flammables away from structures. Also, you’ll have to remove some of the living vegetation from around your home.
This strategy is the opposite to some advice you’ll get regarding keeping your home invisible; it means that you’d have to remove those thorny bushes you’ve planted under your windows to keep the bad guys out. This can be a tough decision, but you just might have to make a choice between fire protection and privacy if your area is at risk. Another factor to consider is the materials that your retreat is made of. How much fire resistance does your structure have? A wood frame home with wooden shingles will go up like a match in a wildfire. You should try to build as much flame resistance into your retreat as possible.
For natural catastrophes, it’s important to consider the concept of “defensible space”. From a wildfire perspective, a defensible space is an area around a structure where wood and vegetation are treated, cleared, or reduced to slow the spread of flames towards a structure. Having a defensible space will also provide room to work for those fighting the fire. The amount of defensible space you’ll need depends on whether you’re on flat land or on a steep slope. Flatland fires spread more slowly than a fire on a slope (hot air and flames rise). A fire on a steep slope with wind blowing uphill spreads fast and produces “spot fires”. These are small fires that ignite vegetation ahead of the main burn, due to small bits of burning debris in the air.
You’ll want to thin out those thick canopied trees near your house. Any nearby tree within 50 feet on flatland, or 200 feet if downhill from your retreat on top of the mountain, needs to be thinned, so that you’re pruning branches off below 10-12 feet high, and separating them by 10-20 feet. Also, eliminate all shrubs at the base of the trunks.
Other things you should do:
1)Clean up all dead wood in the area.
2)Stack firewood at least 20 feet from any building.
3)Keep gardening tools and other items stored away.
GET OUT OF DODGE
Of course, once you have created a defensible space, the natural inclination is to want to, well, defend it, even in a wildfire. Unfortunately, you have to remember that you’ll be in the middle of a lot of heat and smoke. Therefore, you’re probably not going to be able to function effectively unless you’re an Olympic athlete. It stands to reason that most of us will not be up to the task.
The safest recommendation, therefore, would be to get out of Dodge if there’s a safe way out. It’s a personal decision but your family’s lives depend on it, so be realistic. If you’re leaving, have that bug-out bag already in the car, as well as any important papers you might need to keep and some cash.
Before leaving, make sure you shut off any air conditioning system that draws air into the house from outside. Turn off all your appliances, close all your windows and lock all your doors. Like any other emergency, you should have some form of communication established with your loved ones so that you can contact each other. Make sure your medical kit contains some eyewash; smoke is a major irritant to the eyes.
IF YOU’RE STUCK
If there is a possibility that you might wind up in the middle of a fire, make sure you’re dressed in long pants and sleeves and heavy boots. A wool blanket is very helpful as an additional outside layer because wool is relatively fire-resistant. If you don’t have wool blankets, this is a good time to add some to your storage, or keep some in your car.
If you’re in a building, stay on the side of the building farthest from the fire with the least number of windows (windows transfer heat to the inside). Stay there unless you have to leave due to smoke or the building catching fire. If that’s the case and you have to leave, wrap yourself in that blanket, leaving only your eyes uncovered. Some people think it’s a good idea to wet the blanket first. Don’t! Wet materials transfer heat much faster than dry materials and will cause more severe burns.
If you’re having trouble breathing because of the smoke, stay low, and crawl out of the building if you have to. There’s less smoke and heat the lower you go.Keep your face down towards the floor. This will help protect your airway, which is very important. You can recover from burns on your skin, but not from major burns in your lungs. For some more information about smoke inhalation, click this link to a short article: https://www.doomandbloom.net/smoke-inhalation/
Wildfires and other catastrophes, whether natural or man-made, can threaten your life and the lives of your loved ones. A little planning and some supplies will give you the best shot at getting through them in the best shape possible.
Joe Alton, M.D., aka Dr. Bones